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disabledke
Topic :   Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance

by , updated 2018


Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance, etc.

For example, when people smoke (behavior) and they know that smoking causes cancer (cognition), they are in a state of cognitive dissonance.

Cognitive dissonance was first investigated by Leon Festinger, arising out of a participant observation study of a cult which believed that the earth was going to be destroyed by a flood, and what happened to its members — particularly the really committed ones who had given up their homes and jobs to work for the cult — when the flood did not happen.

While fringe members were more inclined to recognize that they had made fools of themselves and to "put it down to experience," committed members were more likely to re-interpret the evidence to show that they were right all along (the earth was not destroyed because of the faithfulness of the cult members).

How Attitude Change Takes Place

Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and behavior in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance). This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency.

When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.

Dissonance can be reduced in one of three ways:

Change one or more of the attitudes, behavior, beliefs, etc., to make the relationship between the two elements a consonant one.

When one of the dissonant elements is a behavior, the individual can change or eliminate the behavior.

However, this mode of dissonance reduction frequently presents problems for people, as it is often difficult for people to change well-learned behavioral responses (e.g., giving up smoking).

Acquire new information that outweighs the dissonant beliefs.

For example, thinking smoking causes lung cancer will cause dissonance if a person smokes.

However, new information such as “research has not proved definitely that smoking causes lung cancer” may reduce the dissonance.

Reduce the importance of the cognitions (i.e., beliefs, attitudes).

A person could convince themself that it is better to "live for today" than to "save for tomorrow."

In other words, he could tell himself that a short life filled with smoking and sensual pleasures is better than a long life devoid of such joys. In this way, he would be decreasing the importance of the dissonant cognition (smoking is bad for one's health).

Notice that dissonance theory does not state that these modes of dissonance reduction will actually work, only that individuals who are in a state of cognitive dissonance will take steps to reduce the extent of their dissonance.

The theory of cognitive dissonance has been widely researched in a number of situations to develop the basic idea in more detail, and various factors that have been identified which may be important in attitude change.

This research can be divided into three main areas:

  1. forced compliance behavior,
  2. decision-making,
  3. and effort.

We will look at the main findings to have emerged from each area.

Forced Compliance Behavior

When someone is forced to do (publicly) something they (privately) really don't want to do, dissonance is created between their cognition (I didn't want to do this) and their behavior (I did it).

Forced compliance occurs when an individual performs an action that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs. The behavior can't be changed, since it was already in the past, so dissonance will need to be reduced by re-evaluating their attitude to what they have done. This prediction has been tested experimentally:

cognitive dissonance experiment turning pegs

In an intriguing experiment, Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) asked participants to perform a series of dull tasks (such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour). As you can imagine, participant's attitudes toward this task were highly negative.

Aim

Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) investigated if making people perform a dull task would create cognitive dissonance through forced compliance behavior.

Method

In their laboratory experiment, they used 71 male students as participants to perform a series of dull tasks (such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour).

They were then paid either $1 or $20 to tell a waiting participant (a confederate) that the tasks were really interesting. Almost all of the participants agreed to walk into the waiting room and persuade the confederate that the boring experiment would be fun. 

Results

When the participants were asked to evaluate the experiment, the participants who were paid only $1 rated the tedious task as more fun and enjoyable than the participants who were paid $20 to lie.

Conclusion

Being paid only $1 is not sufficient incentive for lying and so those who were paid $1 experienced dissonance. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable. Being paid $20 provides a reason for turning pegs, and there is therefore no dissonance.

Decision Making

Life is filled with decisions, and decisions (as a general rule) arouse dissonance.

For example, suppose you had to decide whether to accept a job in an absolutely beautiful area of the country, or turn down the job so you could be near your friends and family. Either way, you would experience dissonance. If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys.

Both alternatives have their good points and bad points. The rub is that making a decision cuts off the possibility that you can enjoy the advantages of the unchosen alternative, yet it assures you that you must accept the disadvantages of the chosen alternative.

People have several ways to reduce dissonance that is aroused by making a decision (Festinger, 1964). One thing they can do is to change the behavior. As noted earlier, this is often very difficult, so people frequently employ a variety of mental maneuvers. A common way to reduce dissonance is to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the rejected alternative. This is referred to as "spreading apart the alternatives."

Brehm (1956) was the first to investigate the relationship between dissonance and decision-making.

Method

Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers. Participants were also told that they would receive one of the products at the end of the experiment to compensate for their time and effort.

The women then rated the desirability of eight household products that ranged in price from $15 to $30. The products included an automatic coffee maker, an electric sandwich grill, an automatic toaster, and a portable radio.

Participants in the control group were simply given one of the products. Because these participants did not make a decision, they did not have any dissonance to reduce. Individuals in the low-dissonance group chose between a desirable product and one rated 3 points lower on an 8-point scale.

Participants in the high-dissonance condition chose between a highly desirable product and one rated just 1 point lower on the 8-point scale. After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again.

Findings

Participants in the high-dissonance condition spread apart the alternatives significantly more than did the participants in the other two conditions.

In other words, they were more likely than participants in the other two conditions to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the unchosen alternative.

Effort

It also seems to be the case that we value most highly those goals or items which have required considerable effort to achieve.

This is probably because dissonance would be caused if we spent a great effort to achieve something and then evaluated it negatively. We could, of course, spend years of effort into achieving something which turns out to be a load of rubbish and then, in order to avoid the dissonance that produces, try to convince ourselves that we didn't really spend years of effort, or that the effort was really quite enjoyable, or that it wasn't really a lot of effort.

In fact, though, it seems we find it easier to persuade ourselves that what we have achieved is worthwhile and that's what most of us do, evaluating highly something whose achievement has cost us dear - whether other people think it's much cop or not! This method of reducing dissonance is known as 'effort justification.'

If we put effort into a task which we have chosen to carry out, and the task turns out badly, we experience dissonance. To reduce this dissonance, we are motivated to try to think that the task turned out well.

A classic dissonance experiment by Aronson and Mills (1959) demonstrates the basic idea.

Aim

To investigate the relationship between dissonance and effort.

Method

Female students volunteered to take part in a discussion on the psychology of sex. In the 'mild embarrassment' condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like 'virgin' and 'prostitute.'

In the 'severe embarrassment' condition, they had to read aloud obscene words and a very explicit sexual passage. In the control condition, they went straight into the main study. In all conditions, they then heard a very boring discussion about sex in lower animals. They were asked to rate how interesting they had found the discussion, and how interesting they had found the people involved in it.

Results

Participants in the 'severe embarrassment' condition gave the most positive rating.

Conclusion

If a voluntary experience which has cost a lot of effort turns out badly, dissonance is reduced by redefining the experience as interesting. This justifies the effort made.

Critical Evaluation

There has been a great deal of research into cognitive dissonance, providing some interesting and sometimes unexpected findings. It is a theory with very broad applications, showing that we aim for consistency between attitudes and behaviors, and may not use very rational methods to achieve it. It has the advantage of being testable by scientific means (i.e., experiments). 

However, there is a problem from a scientific point of view, because we cannot physically observe cognitive dissonance, and therefore we cannot objectively measure it (re: behaviorism). Consequently, the term cognitive dissonance is somewhat subjective. 

There is also some ambiguity (i.e., vagueness) about the term 'dissonance' itself. Is it a perception (as 'cognitive' suggests), or a feeling, or a feeling about a perception? Aronson's Revision of the idea of dissonance as an inconsistency between a person's self-concept and a cognition about their behavior makes it seem likely that dissonance is really nothing more than guilt.

There are also individual differences in whether or not people act as this theory predicts. Highly anxious people are more likely to do so. Many people seem able to cope with considerable dissonance and not experience the tensions the theory predicts.

Finally, many of the studies supporting the theory of cognitive dissonance have low ecological validity. For example, turning pegs (as in Festinger's experiment) is an artificial task that doesn’t happen in everyday life. Also, the majority of experiments used students as participants, which raise issues of a biased sample. Could we generalize the results from such experiments?



06/18/2018 10:05 AM


disabledke
Topic :   Everything you need to know about aspiration pneumonia

Everything you need to know about aspiration pneumonia

Last reviewed
Aspiration pneumonia is a type of pneumonia that might occur if a person breathes something in instead of swallowing it. The germs from food particles, saliva, vomit, or other substances may infect the airways and lead to aspiration pneumonia.

In this article, learn about the causes and risk factors of aspiration pneumonia, as well as how doctors diagnose the condition.

We also cover treatment and complications, including whether a person can die from the infection.

What is aspiration pneumonia?

Aspiration pneumonia. Image credit: Melvil, (2017, November 13).Germs in the lungs cause aspiration pneumonia. Image credit: Melvil, (2017, November 13).

Pneumonia is an infection caused by germs getting into the lungs and airways.

In aspiration pneumonia, these germs get into the lungs because a person accidentally breathes something in instead of swallowing it.

Healthy lungs can usually handle the bacteria from these accidents and get rid of as much of it as possible by causing a person to cough.

People who have trouble coughing, are already ill, or who have compromised immune systems are more prone to aspiration pneumonia.

Aspiration pneumonia is most common in older individuals and younger children but can affect anyone.

Can you die from aspiration pneumonia?

It is possible to die from aspiration pneumonia so doctors will address the condition as soon as possible.

Doctors will give special consideration to each person's treatment to ensure they receive the correct antibiotic.

Life-threatening complications might occur if the person has gone too long without treatment or has a compromised immune system.

Causes and risk factors

Aspiration pneumonia often occurs if a person has a compromised immune system and inhales an object containing a lot of germs.

In many cases, the person will cough automatically, which will expel these unwanted particles and prevent aspiration pneumonia from developing.

People who have an impaired ability to cough may be more at risk of developing an infection from inhaling something, particularly if the object was large or was a source of infectious germs.

Other risk factors for aspiration pneumonia include:

  • esophageal disorders or dysfunction
  • using muscle relaxers, sedatives, or anesthesia
  • using or abusing alcohol or drugs
  • dental problems
  • problems with the nerves (neurological disorders)
  • throat cancer
  • stroke
  • seizure
  • heart attack
  • coma
  • gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) or heartburn
  • disorders that impair the mental state, such as dementia

The type of germs infecting the lungs or large airways may also change depending on many factors, but they are usually Streptococcus pneumoniaStaphylococcus aureus, or gram-negative infectious bacteria.

Symptoms

Woman in bed with high fever and oral thermometer.A high fever and difficulty breathing may indicate aspiration pneumonia.

Aspiration pneumonia can cause a range of symptoms, including:

  • difficulty swallowing
  • shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • fatigue
  • chest pain
  • wheezing
  • slightly blue skin
  • high fever
  • sweating

Anyone with these symptoms should contact their doctor immediately for a proper diagnosis and treatment.

Signs such as colored phlegm and high fever in children or older adults justify a trip to urgent care.

Diagnosis

Doctors will work to diagnose and treat aspiration pneumonia as fast as possible. Doctors will typically ask about symptoms and then do a physical exam to check for signs of pneumonia.

Signs could include a crackling noise in the lungs while the person is breathing or a person is having difficulty breathing.

X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans can provide images of the lungs. Doctors may also use a bronchoscope to look at the airways and check for any blockages.

A sputum culture test, complete blood count (CBC), or arterial blood gas test can help gauge how severe the infection is and what type of treatment is required.

Treatment

Treatment for aspiration pneumonia will vary greatly depending on the person's overall health and the severity of their symptoms.

Antibiotics are commonly used to help clear out the infection and avoid serious complications. Doctors may need to wait until test results come back to determine which antibiotic to prescribe, as some bacteria are resistant to certain antibiotics.

Some people may need to be hospitalized and monitored. If a person is having difficulty breathing, they may need to use a breathing machine.

If the person is having difficulty swallowing, doctors may recommend an assisted feeding method or a change of eating habits to avoid further aspiration.

Complications

Doctor using stethoscope listening to patients breathing.Seeing a doctor as soon as possible may prevent complications.

Aspiration pneumonia can cause severe complications, especially if a person waits too long to go to the doctor.

The infection may progress quickly and spread to other areas of the body. It may also spread to the bloodstream, which is especially dangerous.

Pockets or abscesses may form in the lungs. In some cases, pneumonia can cause shock or respiratory failure.

Diseases that affect swallowing or cause further inflammation may make aspiration pneumonia worse or prevent it from healing properly.

Some severe infections may result in long-term damage and scarring in the lungs and major airways.

Prevention

Aspiration pneumonia is not always preventable, but some lifestyle choices can help reduce the risk.

Drinking excessive alcohol or using illicit drugs raise the risk of aspiration pneumonia, as a person may be too intoxicated to swallow properly.

Prescription medications that affect the muscles or make a person overly drowsy can also increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia.

Anyone who feels that their food regularly goes down the wrong pipe when they are taking prescription medications should talk to their doctor about adjusting the dosage or switching medications to avoid breathing in foreign particles.

Other tips to help prevent aspiration pneumonia include:

  • practicing good dental and oral hygiene
  • not smoking
  • sitting up while eating and chewing slowly and deliberately

Outlook

The outlook for people with aspiration pneumonia depends on a few critical factors, such as how soon the person went to the doctor with their symptoms, how far the symptoms progressed, and their general health before getting pneumonia.

The type of object inhaled and the strain of bacterial infection may also play a role in a person's recovery.

Aspiration pneumonia appears to be more severe than the common form of pneumonia. In one study, researchers noted that people with aspirational pneumonia were much more likely to check into a hospital, stay in intensive care, or pass away from the illness compared to people with community-acquired pneumonia.

That said, most people survive aspiration pneumonia, but full recovery can take some time.

Doctors will carefully monitor older individuals or those with compromised immune systems to avoid life-threatening complications.

It is essential to follow a doctor's treatment plan to give the body the best chance of recovery. Unless otherwise told by a doctor, always complete a full course of antibiotic treatment, even if symptoms go away early on in the treatment.

Lifestyle changes, such as improving oral hygiene and quitting drugs or alcohol, may also help prevent aspiration pneumonia.

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06/18/2018 06:19 AM


disabledke
Topic :   What is separation anxiety disorder in adults?

What is separation anxiety disorder in adults?

Last reviewed
Separation anxiety is when someone is afraid of being separated from a particular person, persons, or even a pet. While many people associate separation anxiety with children, adults can experience the condition as well.

A person develops extreme anxiety as a result of the separation. A person may also manifest physical symptoms related to separation anxiety. These can include:

Separation anxiety often occurs in children, especially those younger than 2 years old. A child does not yet understand, at this time, that when a parent goes away, they are still nearby and coming back.

Sometimes, a person with separation anxiety as an adult may have had the condition as a child. Others may experience it only in adulthood.

What are the symptoms?

Woman with separation anxiety looking out of window.
Excessive worry about being alone characterizes separation anxiety.

Separation anxiety is an anxiety disorder. Other examples of anxiety disorders include agoraphobia and panic disorder.

The American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual for mental health conditions, the DSM-5, defines separation anxiety as when a person has several of the following symptoms:

  • unusual distress about being separated from a person or pet
  • excessive worry that another person will be harmed if they leave them alone
  • heightened fear of being alone
  • physical symptoms when they know they will be separated from another person soon
  • excessive worry surrounding being alone
  • needing to know where a spouse or loved one is at all times

These symptoms can last for 6 months or more in adults. Their symptoms can cause them significant distress that affects their social, occupational, or academic functioning.

What causes separation anxiety in adults?

An adult's separation anxiety can stem from a parent, partner, or a child who moves away. Their anxiety may also be related to another underlying mental health condition. These may include delusions from psychotic disorders or fear of change relating to an autism spectrum disorder.

On occasion people may categorize an adult with separation anxiety disorder as being controlling or overprotective. However, their actions are often an adult's way of expressing their fears in regard to separation.

Risk factors

Two wedding ring bands on top of one another representing divorce.
Divorce may cause separation anxiety.

Those with obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD are more likely to experience separation anxiety as an adult, according to an article in the journal Personality and Mental Health.

Those with separation anxiety often have other co-existing conditions, such as social phobias, panic disorders, or agoraphobia (fear of going outdoors).

Other risk factors for separation anxiety, in addition to pre-existing mental health conditions, include:

  • being female
  • childhood adversity, such as the death of a family member
  • history of childhood traumatic events, such as abuse

Sometimes a significant life change, such as a divorce or a child leaving home and going to college, can cause a person to develop adult separation anxiety.

According to The American Journal of Psychiatry, an estimated 43.1 percent of people who experience separation disorder other than as children, develop the condition after 18 years of age.

How is it diagnosed?

In the past, the DSM-5 only considered separation anxiety to be a condition that lasted until a person was 18 years old. In more recent versions, however, the definition has expanded to include adults.

A doctor will diagnose separation anxiety by asking about the symptoms a person is experiencing. A mental health expert will use the criteria, including those used in the latest DSM-5 to make a diagnosis of separation anxiety in adults.

Treatment and management options

Group therapy or counseling.
Group therapy may help to treat separation anxiety.

Doctors treat separation anxiety primarily through psychotherapy.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

This therapy aims to help a person identify their thoughts and behaviors that are making their separation anxiety worse.

Parents may also learn additional parenting techniques that can reduce their separation anxiety.

Sometimes an individual can benefit from group therapy and family therapy.

Anti-anxiety medication

Doctors may also temporarily prescribe anti-anxiety medications to help a person through their most acute symptoms of separation anxiety. These drugs, however, are not always long-term solutions to the underlying disorder, and some types of anti-anxiety medications can be addictive.

A person should engage in therapy so they can begin to change their ways of thinking to reduce the incidence of separation anxiety.

Support groups

A person may also wish to seek out a support group for those with anxiety and separation anxiety. People who join these groups can gain help with learning techniques for reducing separation-related anxiety.

Takeaway

While adult separation anxiety is not as common as when a child experiences this condition, it is still possible that a person can have separation anxiety as an adult. The anxiety can be so intense that it is hard for someone to function in daily life due to fears and worries about separating from another person.

People should see a mental health professional if they are not sure if their fears are related to separation.

Through therapy and, in some instances, medications, people can reduce their separation anxiety symptoms.

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    Article last reviewed by Thu 7 June 2018.

    Visit our Psychology / Psychiatry category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Psychology / Psychiatry.

    All references are available in the References tab.



06/18/2018 06:17 AM


disabledke
Topic :   Heart disease: Erectile dysfunction may double risk

Heart disease: Erectile dysfunction may double risk

Published
If you have symptoms of erectile dysfunction, it might be a good idea to have your heart health checked. This is the main finding of a new study that suggests that erectile dysfunction might be an early sign of heart disease.
man having heart attack
For men, erectile dysfunction may be a predictor of heart disease.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women, but the risk factors and symptoms are different for the two sexes.

For instance, risk factors such as birth controlpills, emotional stress, hormonal changes, and depression are known to be more pronounced in women than in men.

For men, many of the common risk factors for heart disease — such as high blood pressureobesity, metabolic syndrome, and smoking — are the same as the risk factors for erectile dysfunction, which is a condition that affects as many as 25 percent of all men under the age of 40.

Despite these commonalities, erectile dysfunction has never been studied as an independent risk factor for heart disease in men.

But now, researchers led by Dr. Michael Blaha — an associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD — set out to fill this gap in research by investigating the link between erectile dysfunction and heart health in more than 1,900 men over a period of 4 years.

Their findings were published in the journal Circulation.

Erectile dysfunction predicts heart disease

The researchers examined data extracted from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, which is "an ethnically diverse, community-based, multisite prospective cohort study" that encompassed 1,914 study participants aged 60–78.

Overall, the study found that erectile dysfunction puts men at double the risk of cardiovascular problems such as heart attack, cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death, or stroke.

This heightened risk was independent of other risk factors such as high cholesterol, smoking, and hypertension.

The scientists say that their study provides the most reliable evidence yet that erectile dysfunction is a stand-alone risk factor for heart disease.

More specifically, over the 4-year study period, 115 heart attacksstrokes, sudden cardiac arrests, and sudden cardiac deaths were recorded.

Before other risk factors were considered, the analysis revealed that more than 6 percent of the men with erectile dysfunction experienced these heart problems, whereas these forms of heart disease affected only 2.6 percent of the men who did not have sexual dysfunctions.

After additional risk factors were taken into account, the risk remained almost twice as high for men with erectile dysfunction.

Dr. Blaha comments on the findings, saying, "Our results reveal that erectile dysfunction is, in and of itself, a potent predictor of cardiovascular risk."

"Our findings suggest that clinicians should perform further targeted screening in men with erectile dysfunction, regardless of other cardiac risk factors and should consider managing any other risk factors — such as high blood pressure or cholesterol — that much more aggressively."

Dr. Michael Blaha

He adds that most men try to avoid seeing their physician when they have early symptoms of heart disease, but they do seek help immediately when confronted with erectile dysfunction.

"This is a wonderful opportunity to identify otherwise undetected high-risk cases," says Dr. Blaha.

"The onset of [erectile dysfunction]," he adds, "should prompt men to seek comprehensive cardiovascular risk evaluation from a preventive cardiologist."

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06/18/2018 06:13 AM


disabledke
Topic :   Cimzia

Getting Ready

Bullet Number 1

Before you begin treatment

Now that you’ve met with your doctor and discussed starting CIMZIA, you may need to take a few steps to prepare for treatment. Your doctor will let you know if there are any tests needed prior to starting CIMZIA. For example, your doctor may request a test to check for tuberculosis (TB) or a hepatitis B test. You should not start any biologic therapy if you have an active infection or recently received a live vaccine. Always consult your doctor if you have questions about any tests or when you should or should not take your medication.

Bullet Number 2

Receiving financial assistance

If you have healthcare insurance, your doctor’s office will help coordinate coverage and find out how much CIMZIA will cost. The CIMplicity®2program can also help check whether you are eligible for the CIMplicity®Savings Program.1 Click here to enroll in the CIMplicity® program.

You can also find helpful information about insurance coverage by clicking here.

Bullet Number 3

Treatment and ongoing support

Depending on which formulation of CIMZIA is prescribed, you will either self-inject CIMZIA at home or have CIMZIA injected by a healthcare professional at your doctor's office. Talk with your doctor about which is right for you.

It’s important to take CIMZIA as prescribed by your doctor. This may include your starter doses of two 200-mg injections taken on day 0, day 14 (week 2), and day 28 (week 4) before you move to maintenance dosing as determined by your doctor.

Make sure to always write down the dates and locations of your CIMZIA injections in your calendar, and put a reminder in your calendar or sign up for reminders about future doses. You can receive services to help you start and stay on CIMZIA with CIMplicity®2, our free support program designed for CIMZIA patients. Click here to enroll and receive free coaching from a nurse about dosing, nutrition, wellness, and more. You can also choose to receive free syringe disposal supplies, medication reminders, co-pay support, and other educational materials.

If you have questions or need more information, you can call a CIMplicity®2 nurse directly at 1-844-UCBNurse (1-844-822-6877).

1Savings Card Eligibility: Available to individuals with commercial prescription insurance coverage for CIMZIA. Not valid for prescriptions that are reimbursed, in whole or in part, under Medicare (including Medicare Part D), Medicaid, similar federal-or state-funded programs (including any state prescription drug assistance programs and the Government Health Insurance Plan available in Puerto Rico), or where otherwise prohibited by law. Product dispensed pursuant to program rules and federal and state laws. Claims should not be submitted to any public payor (ie, Medicare, Medicaid, Medigap, TRICARE, VA, and DoD) for reimbursement. The maximum annual benefit amount is $15,000 per calendar year. The parties reserve the right to amend or end this program at any time without notice.

If you are uninsured, other financial assistance may be available. Call UCBCares toll free at 1-844-599-CARE (2273) for more information. The CIMplicity® program is provided as a service of UCB, Inc., and is intended to support the appropriate use of CIMZIA. Any CIMplicity program may be amended or canceled at any time without notice. Some program and eligibility restrictions apply. Please consult your doctor if you have any questions about your condition or treatment. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

UCB, Inc., is not liable for unintended or unauthorized use of the CIMplicity® Savings Card if it is lost or stolen.

2The CIMplicity program is provided as a service of UCB and is intended to support the appropriate use of CIMZIA. The CIMplicity program may be amended or cancelled at any time without notice. Some program and eligibility restrictions may apply.

Important Safety Information you should know about CIMZIA® (certolizumab pegol)

What is the most important information I should know about CIMZIA?

CIMZIA is a medicine that affects your immune system. CIMZIA can lower the ability of the immune system to fight infections. Serious infections have happened in patients taking CIMZIA, including tuberculosis (TB) and infections caused by viruses, fungi, or bacteria that have spread throughout the body. Some patients have died from these infections.

  • Your healthcare provider should test you for TB before starting CIMZIA.
  • Your healthcare provider should monitor you closely for signs and symptoms of TB during treatment with CIMZIA.

You should not start receiving CIMZIA if you have any kind of infection unless your healthcare provider says it is okay.

Before you receive CIMZIA, tell your healthcare provider if you:

  • think you have an infection, flu-like symptoms, or have any other symptoms of an infection such as:
    • fever, sweat, or chills
    • weight loss
    • muscle aches
    • warm, red, or painful skin or sores on your body
    • cough
    • diarrhea or stomach pain
    • shortness of breath
    • burning when you urinate or urinate more often than normal
    • blood in phlegm
    • feeling very tired
  • are being treated for an infection, or get a lot of infections or have infections that keep coming back
  • have diabetes, HIV, or a weak immune system. People with these conditions have a higher chance for infections.
  • have tuberculosis (TB), or have been in close contact with someone with TB
  • were born in, lived in, or traveled to countries where there is more risk of getting TB. Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure.
  • live or have lived in certain parts of the country (such as the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys) where there is an increased risk for getting certain kinds of fungal infections (histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis). These infections may develop or become more severe if you take CIMZIA. If you do not know if you have lived in an area where histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, or blastomycosis is common, ask your healthcare provider.
  • have or have had hepatitis B
  • use the medicine Kineret® (anakinra), Orencia® (abatacept), Rituxan® (rituximab), or Tysabri® (natalizumab)

After starting CIMZIA, if you get an infection, any sign of an infection including a fever, cough, flu-like symptoms, or have open cuts or sores on your body, call your healthcare provider right away. CIMZIA can make you more likely to get infections or make any infection that you may have worse.

Cancer

  • For people taking TNF-blocker medicines, including CIMZIA, the chances of getting lymphoma or other cancers may increase.
  • There have been cases of cancers in children, teenagers, and young adults who received TNF-blocker medicine that do not usually happen in people this age.  CIMZIA is not approved for use in pediatric patients. People with RA, especially more serious RA, may have a higher chance for getting a kind of cancer called lymphoma.
  • Some people receiving TNF-blocker medicines, including CIMZIA, have developed a rare type of cancer called hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma. This type of cancer often results in death.  Most of these people were male teenagers and young males with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.  Also, most of these people had been treated with both a TNF-blocker medicine and another medicine called IMURAN® (azathioprine) or PURINETHOL® (6-mercaptopurine, 6-MP).
  • If you use TNF-blocker medicine, including CIMZIA, your chance of developing certain kinds of skin cancer may increase.  Tell your healthcare provider if any changes in the appearance of your skin, including growths on your skin, happen during or after your treatment.

What is CIMZIA?

CIMZIA is a prescription medicine called a Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) blocker. CIMZIA is used in adult patients to:

  • Lessen the signs and symptoms of moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease (CD) in patients who have not been helped enough by usual treatments.
  • Treat moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  • Treat active psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
  • Treat active ankylosing spondylitis (AS)

What should I tell my healthcare provider before starting treatment with CIMZIA?

CIMZIA may not be right for you. Before starting CIMZIA, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

  • have an infection
  • have or have had any type of cancer
  • have congestive heart failure
  • have seizures, any numbness or tingling, or a disease that affects your nervous system such as multiple sclerosis
  • are scheduled to receive a vaccine. Do not receive a live vaccine while taking CIMZIA.
  • are allergic to any of the ingredients in CIMZIA
  • are allergic to rubber or latex. 7% of the plastic needle shield inside the removable cap is derived from natural rubber latex.
  • are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant while receiving CIMZIA.
    Pregnancy Registry: If you become pregnant while taking CIMZIA, talk to your healthcare provider about registering in the pregnancy exposure registry for CIMZIA. You can enroll in this registry by calling 1-877-311-8972. The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the safety of CIMZIA during pregnancy.
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. You and your healthcare provider should decide if you will receive CIMZIA or breastfeed.

Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take the following medicines due to a higher chance for serious infections:

  • Kineret® (anakinra), Orencia® (abatacept), Rituxan® (rituximab), or Tysabri® (natalizumab)
  • medicines called Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) blockers, such as  Remicade® (infliximab), Humira® (adalimumab), Enbrel® (etanercept), or Simponi®(golimumab)

Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure. You should not take CIMZIA while you take any of these medicines.

How should I receive CIMZIA?

CIMZIA comes as a lyophilized powder or a solution in a prefilled syringe for injection. If your healthcare provider prescribes the CIMZIA powder, CIMZIA should be injected by a healthcare provider. If your healthcare provider prescribes the prefilled syringe, you will be trained on how to inject CIMZIA. See the booklet called “Instructions for Use” packaged in your CIMZIA prefilled syringe kit for complete instructions for use. Do not give yourself an injection of CIMZIA unless you have been shown by your healthcare provider, or they can train someone you know to help you with your injection. CIMZIA is given by an injection under the skin. Your healthcare provider will tell you how much and how often to inject CIMZIA. Do not use more CIMZIA or inject more often than prescribed.

What are the possible side effects of CIMZIA? CIMZIA can cause serious side effects including:

  • Heart Failure including new heart failure or worsening of heart failure you already have. Symptoms include shortness of breath, swelling of your ankles or feet, or sudden weight gain.
  • Allergic Reactions. Signs of an allergic reaction include a skin rash, swelling or itching of the face, tongue, lips, or throat, or trouble breathing.
  • Hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients who carry the virus in their blood. In some cases, patients have died as a result of hepatitis B virus being reactivated. Your healthcare provider should monitor you carefully before and during treatment with CIMZIA to see if you carry the hepatitis B virus in your blood. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any of the following symptoms:
    • feel unwell
    • poor appetite or vomiting
    • skin or eyes look yellow
    • pain on the right side of your stomach (abdomen)
    • tiredness (fatigue)
  • New or worsening nervous system problems, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Guillain-Barre syndrome, seizures, or inflammation of the nerves of the eyes. Symptoms may include:
    • dizziness
    • numbness or tingling
    • problems with your vision
    • weakness in your arms or legs
  • Blood Problems. Your body may not make enough of the blood cells that help fight infections or help stop bleeding. Symptoms include a fever that does not go away, bruising or bleeding very easily, or looking very pale.
  • Immune reactions including a lupus-like syndrome. Symptoms include shortness of breath, joint pain, or a rash on the cheeks or arms that worsens with sun exposure.

Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any side effects listed above.

The most common side effects of CIMZIA include: upper respiratory infections (flu, cold), rash, and urinary tract infections (bladder infections).

Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or does not go away. These are not all of the possible side effects of CIMZIA. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Please see the Medication Guide for CIMZIA and discuss it with your healthcare provider.



06/17/2018 04:54 AM


disabledke
Topic :   Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless Legs Syndrome

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Restless Legs Syndrome
ABOUT
DESCRIPTION

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder of the part of the nervous system that causes an urge to move the legs. Because it usually interferes with sleep, it also is considered a sleep disorder.

Symptoms of Restless Legs Syndrome

People with restless legs syndrome have uncomfortable sensations in their legs (and sometimes arms or other parts of the body) and an irresistible urge to move their legs to relieve the sensations. The condition causes an uncomfortable, "itchy," "pins and needles," or "creepy crawly" feeling in the legs. The sensations are usually worse at rest, especially when lying or sitting.

The severity of RLS symptoms ranges from mild to intolerable. Symptoms can come and go and severity can also vary. The symptoms are generally worse in the evening and at night. For some people, symptoms may cause severe nightly sleep disruption that can significantly impair their quality of life.

Who Gets Restless Legs Syndrome?

Restless legs syndrome may affect up to 10% of the U.S. population. It affects both sexes, but is more common in women and may begin at any age, even in young children. Most people who are affected severely are middle-aged or older.

RLS is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed. This is especially true if the symptoms are intermittent or mild. Once correctly diagnosed, RLS can often be treated successfully.

Causes of Restless Legs Syndrome

In most cases, doctors do not know the cause of restless legs syndrome; however, they suspect that genes play a role. Nearly half of people with RLS also have a family member with the condition.

Other factors associated with the development or worsening of restless legs syndrome include:

  • Chronic diseases. Certain chronic diseases and medical conditions, including iron deficiency, Parkinson’s disease, kidney failurediabetes, and peripheral neuropathy often include symptoms of RLS. Treating these conditions often gives some relief from RLS symptoms.
  • Medications. Some types of medications, including antinausea drugs, antipsychotic drugs, some antidepressants, and cold and allergymedications containing sedating antihistamines, may worsen symptoms.
  • Pregnancy. Some women experience RLS during pregnancy, especially in the last trimester. Symptoms usually go away within a month after delivery.

Other factors, including alcohol use and sleep deprivation, may trigger symptoms or make them worse. Improving sleep or eliminating alcohol use in these cases may relieve symptoms.

Diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome

There is no medical test to diagnose RLS; however, doctors may use bloodtests and other exams to rule out other conditions. The diagnosis of RLS is based on a patient’s symptoms and answers to questions concerning family history of similar symptoms, medication use, the presence of other symptoms or medical conditions, or problems with daytime sleepiness.

Treatment for Restless Legs Syndrome

Treatment for RLS is targeted at easing symptoms. In people with mild to moderate restless legs syndrome, lifestyle changes, such as beginning a regular exercise program, establishing regular sleep patterns, and eliminating or decreasing the use of caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco, may be helpful. Treatment of an RLS-associated condition also may provide relief of symptoms.

Other non-drug RLS treatments may include:

  • Leg massages
  • Hot baths or heating pads or ice packs applied to the legs
  • Good sleep habits
  • A vibrating pad called Relaxis

Medications may be helpful as RLS treatments, but the same drugs are not helpful for everyone. In fact, a drug that relieves symptoms in one person may worsen them in another. In other cases, a drug that works for a while may lose its effectiveness over time.

Drugs used to treat RLS include:

  • Dopaminergic drugs, which act on the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brainMirapexNeupro, and Requip are FDA-approved for treatment of moderate to severe RLS. Others, such as levodopa, may also be prescribed.
  • Benzodiazepines, a class of sedative medications, may be used to help with sleep, but they can cause daytime drowsiness.
  • Narcotic pain relievers may be used for severe pain.
  • Anticonvulsants, or antiseizure drugs, such as TegretolLyricaNeurontin, and Horizant.

Although there is no cure for restless legs syndrome, current treatments can help control the condition, decrease symptoms, and improve sleep.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Minesh Khatri, MD on April 30, 2017

Sources

© 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


06/17/2018 02:47 AM


disabledke
Re :   Group weekly meetings

Disabled People & Elderly Support Group

2nd meeting 13th June 2018 at St Herberts Court, Wellington St, Chadderton, OL9 0JD

We agreed that the group should change its name to the above.

We are here for Physically, Sensory & Mentally Impaired (any ages) also the Over 50’s.

Anyone who is a Housing problems are welcome to this group if you are disabled (physically, 

sensory or mentally impaired) or over 50!

We aim to help any one who need help or having problems of any description, from not getting any 

repairs done or alterations to your property, and disabled or health problems!

Weekly meetings, I am disabled housebound with out a carer so need help to run group!

I am the Chairman of the group, I would like to start by welcoming every to our 2nd meeting

I am looking for some help to run this group as at present I am bad in health & can only do so 

much.

I feel the first thing we should concentrate on is the lack of dropped kerbs in & around Chadderton 

also the position that they are such as at the end Burnley street the dropped kerb is illegal it is too 

near the junction I think it has to be 14 meters away from the junction, I do have the original 

Access & Planning Requirements book when the new access law was past in 2003 but did not come 

in to force till 2013 as I helped a access forum to get the white paper passed through parliament, 

from 1997 till 2000, but the book is my loft & I cannot get it, so will this next week write to Oldham 

Borough regarding Chadderton dropped kerbs & ask them to send me documents regarding to all 

access & planning regulations as Chairman of our group.

Any other topics that you would like to discuss - non.



06/16/2018 15:53 PM


disabledke
Topic :   Group weekly meetings

First Disabled Over 50’s Support Group Meeting Wednesday from 12 - 2pm on 6th June 2018
At St Herberts Court, Wellington St, Chadderton, OL9 0JD

Hi I am Kenny Fletcher Chairman

I am a disabled 0ver 50 local resident

Over the years I have helped & supported 100’s of disabled people until I had 2 major strokes, I was supposed to start this group off a few years ago but had an heart attack.

The reason for this group is for us to help support each other as a community we all have problems from minor to major problems in our lives, it helps when you know some who has experience them all.

Thankfully through the modern day internet we can all find things out if you know how to go about it, which I hope to explain how we can all do this.

I personally ran Lancaster Arthritis Care for six years till 2000 when I moved back to Oldham. Unable to do much since apart from supporting on the internet.

I also help set up Pike View Animal Rescue in 1991  & Pennine Pen Animal Rescue in 2001.

First of all any one with breathing problems such as asthma, lung disease, etc get your air circulations changed from ceiling to wall as the filters still let some fibreglass into your home, as I found out up in Holts Village & on Rosewood Crescent.

If you need any alterations to your home all it takes in one simple phone call to Social Services & you ask for a home assessment, don’t worry they will not stick you in a care home as so many are closing through out the UK, its cheaper to alter your home to help you live an independent life in your own home.

If Like me you need help from getting out of bed to cleaning social services will assess you for a care plan that normally cost you nothing if on pension or benefits.

I went through many years of getting no help at all after fracturing my centre & lower spine I had to pay for carers on £45 a week, impossible, so I now know how these things work.
As I was a workaholic from aged 11 to 26, but I had achieved every thing I had set out to do in life, I was a lucky one
On average takes about 3 years to come to terms with a disability.

On the leaflet I have given you my telephone number but please no calls after 6pm as normally in bed by then, thanks.

But will help mostly through our facebook group that is already set up, I will try to post a replies as soon as possible but like us all we all have good and bad days, hence I would like some help to run this group so if interested in helping please contact me Kenny Fletcher, thank you. 


chat to me after the meeting, as will be relaxing having a cup of coffee.





06/16/2018 15:51 PM


disabledke
Topic :   Gabapentin

Gabapentin

  1. About gabapentin

    Gabapentin is used to treat epilepsy.

    It's also taken for nerve pain. Nerve pain can be caused by different illnesses including diabetes and shingles, or it can happen after an injury.

    Occasionally, gabapentin is used to treat migraine headaches.

    Gabapentin is available on prescription. It comes as capsules, tablets, and a liquid that you drink.

  2. Key facts

    • It's usual to take gabapentin 3 times a day. You can take it with or without food.
    • Most people who take gabapentin don't get any side effects. The most common ones are feeling sleepy, tired and dizzy. Side effects are usually mild and go away by themselves.
    • It takes at least a few weeks for gabapentin to work.
    • You don't need to have epilepsy for gabapentin to help with pain or migraine.
    • The most common brand name is Neurontin.
  3. Who can and can't take gabapentin

    Gabapentin can be taken by adults and children aged 6 years and over.

    Gabapentin isn't suitable for some people:

    • Gabapentin capsules contain gelatin so they may not be suitable for vegetarians and vegans.
    • Some brands of gabapentin capsules contain lactose, so they may be unsuitable for people who are lactose intolerant.
    • Gabapentin liquid contains sodium and potassium. If you are on a controlled sodium or potassium diet, or your kidneys don't work well, speak to your doctor before taking this liquid.

    To make sure gabapentin is safe for you, tell your doctor if you:

    • have ever had an allergic reaction to gabapentin or another other medicines in the past
    • have kidney problems
    • have ever misused or been addicted to a medicine
    • are trying to get pregnant, are already pregnant or are breastfeeding - gabapentin is usually not recommended in pregnancy or while breastfeeding
  4. How and when to take it

    Gabapentin is a prescription medicine. It's important to take it as advised by your doctor.

    How much will I take

    The usual dose of gabapentin to:

    • treat epilepsy in adults and older children (aged 12 years and over) is between 900mg and 3,600mg a day split into 3 doses
    • treat nerve pain in adults is between 900mg and 3,600mg a day split into 3 doses
    • prevent migraine in adults varies but can be up to 2,400mg a day split into 3 doses

    The dose of gabapentin used to treat epilepsy in younger children (aged 6 to 12 years) varies depending on their weight.

    If you're taking gabapentin as a liquid, 1ml is usually the same as taking a 50mg tablet or capsule.

    How to take it

    Swallow gabapentin capsules and tablets whole with a drink of water or juice. Do not chew them.

    You can take gabapentin with or without food, but it’s best to do the same each day.

    Try to space your doses evenly through the day. For example, first thing in the morning, early afternoon and at bedtime.

    If you or your child are taking a liquid, it will come with a plastic syringe or spoon to measure your dose. If you don't have a syringe or spoon, ask your pharmacist for one.

    Will my dose go up or down?

    To prevent side effects, your doctor will prescribe a low dose to start with and then increase it over a few days.

    Once you find a dose that suits you, it will usually stay the same.

    How long will I take it for?

    If you have epilepsy, it's likely that once your illness is under control you will still need to take gabapentin for many years.

    If you have nerve pain, it's likely that once the pain has gone you will continue to take gabapentin for several months to stop it coming back.

    What if I forget to take it?

    If you forget a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is within 2 hours of the next dose, it is better to leave out the missed dose and take your next dose as normal.

    Never take 2 doses at the same time. Never take an extra dose to make up for a forgotten one.

    If you have epilepsy, it’s important to take this medicine regularly. Missing doses may trigger a seizure.

    If you forget doses often, it may help to set an alarm to remind you. You could also ask your pharmacist for advice on other ways to help you remember to take your medicine.

    What if I take too much?

    Taking too much gabapentin by accident can cause unpleasant side effects. These include:

    • feeling dizzy or sleepy
    • seeing double
    • slurring your words
    • diarrhoea
    • passing out

    If this happens, call your doctor or go to the nearest hospital accident and emergency (A&E) departmentstraight away.

    If you need to go to hospital, take the gabapentin packet or leaflet inside it plus any remaining medicine with you.

  5. Side effects

    Most people who take gabapentin don't have too much trouble with side effects.

    Common side effects

    These common side effects may happen in more than 1 in 100 people. They're usually mild and go away by themselves.

    Keep taking the medicine but talk to your doctor if these side effects bother you or don't go away:

    • tiredness or feeling sleepy
    • dizziness or losing your co-ordination
    • feeling sick or vomiting
    • getting more infections than usual
    • memory problems
    • mood changes
    • swollen arms and legs
    • blurred vision
    • dry mouth
    • difficulties for men getting an erection
    • weight gain - gabapentin can make you feel hungry

    Serious side effects

    Very few people taking gabapentin have serious problems.

    Tell a doctor straight away if you have a serious side effect, including:

    • thoughts of harming or killing yourself - a small number of people taking gabapentin have had suicidal thoughts, they can happen after only a week of treatment
    • yellowing of your skin or whites of your eyes - these may be warning signs of jaundice
    • unusual bruises or bleeding - these may be warning signs of a blood disorder
    • long-lasting stomach pain, feeling sick or vomiting - these may be warning signs of an inflamed pancreas
    • muscle pain or weakness and you are having dialysis treatment because of kidney failure

    Serious allergic reaction

    In rare cases, it’s possible to have a serious allergic reaction to gabapentin.

    A serious allergic reaction is an emergency. Contact a doctor straight away if you think you or someone around you is having a serious allergic reaction.

    The warning signs of a serious allergic reaction are:

    • getting a skin rash that may include itchy, red, swollen, blistered or peeling skin
    • wheezing
    • tightness in the chest or throat
    • having trouble breathing or talking
    • swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat

    These are not all the side effects of gabapentin. For a full list see the leaflet inside your medicines packet.

    You can report any suspected side effect to the UK safety scheme.

  6. How to cope with side effects

    What to do about:

    • feeling sleepy, tired or dizzy - as your body gets used to gabapentin, these side effects should wear off. If they don't wear off within a week or two, your doctor may reduce your dose or increase it more slowly. If that doesn't work you may need to switch to a different medicine.
    • feeling sick - take gabapentin with or after a meal or snack. It may also help if you don't eat rich or spicy food.
    • diarrhoea and vomiting - have small but frequent sips of water. It may also help to take oral rehydration solutions which you can buy from a pharmacy or supermarket to prevent dehydration. Don't take any other medicines to treat diarrhoea or vomiting without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
    • blurred vision - don't drive for a week
    • a dry mouth - chew sugar-free gum or suck sugar-free sweets.
    • weight gain - gabapentin can make you hungrier so it can be quite a challenge to stop yourself putting on weight. Try to eat a healthy balanced diet without increasing your portion sizes. Don't snack on foods that contain a lot of calories, such as crisps, cakes, biscuits and sweets. If you feel hungry between meals, eat fruit and vegetables and low-calorie foods. Regular exercise will also help to keep your weight stable.
  7. Pregnancy and breastfeeding

    Gabapentin is not generally recommended in pregnancy. There's no firm evidence that it's harmful to an unborn baby but for safety, pregnant women are usually advised to take it in only if the benefits of the medicine outweigh the potential harm.

    If you take gabapentin for epilepsy and become pregnant, don't stop the medicine without talking to your doctor first. It's very important that epilepsy is treated during pregnancy as seizures can harm you and your unborn baby.

    If you're trying to get pregnant or have become pregnant you're routinely recommended to take at least 400mcg of a vitamin called folic acid everyday. It helps the unborn baby grow normally.

    Pregnant women who take gabapentin are recommended to take a higher dose of folic acid. Your doctor might prescribe a high dose of 5mg a day for you to take during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

    If you take gabapentin around the time of giving birth, your baby may need extra monitoring for a few days after they’re born because they may have gabapentin withdrawal symptoms.

    Gabapentin and breastfeeding

    Usually, you can breastfeed while taking gabapentin.

    Check with your doctor first though if your baby is premature or has kidney problems.

    Tell your doctor if you're trying to get pregnant, are already pregnant or if you're breastfeeding.

  8. Cautions with other medicines

    There aren't usually any problems mixing gabapentin with other medicines.

    Some indigestion remedies, called antacids, reduce the amount of gabapentin that the body takes in so it doesn't work as well. To stop this happening, take an antacid at least 2 hours before or after your dose of gabapentin.

    For safety, tell your doctor if you're taking these medicines before you start gabapentin treatment:

    • strong painkillers such as morphine - these can increase the tiredness and dizziness you can feel when you start gabapentin
    • antidepressants such as amitriptyline or fluoxetine
    • antipsychotic medicines for mental health problems like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder
    • a medicine to prevent malaria called mefloquine
    • a weight loss medicine called Orlistat - it may stop gabapentin working as well

    Mixing gabapentin with herbal remedies or supplements

    There are no known problems with taking herbal remedies and supplements with gabapentin.

    However, for safety, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you're taking any other medicines, including herbal remedies, vitamins or supplements.

  9. Common questions



06/16/2018 14:46 PM


disabledke
Topic :   Pregabalin

Pregabalin

  1. About pregabalin

    Pregabalin is used to treat epilepsy and anxiety.

    It is also taken to treat nerve pain. Nerve pain can be caused by different illnesses including diabetes and shingles, or an injury.

    Pregabalin works in different ways:

    • in epilepsy it stops seizures by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain
    • with nerve pain it blocks pain by interfering with pain messages travelling through the brain and down the spine
    • in anxiety it stops your brain from releasing the chemicals that make you feel anxious

    Pregabalin is only available on prescription. It comes as capsules or a liquid that you drink.

  2. Key facts

    • Pregabalin is usually taken 2 or 3 times a day. You can take it with or without food.
    • You don't have to have epilepsy for pregabalin to help with pain or anxiety.
    • It takes at least a few weeks for pregabalin to work.
    • The side effects of pregabalin are usually mild and go away by themselves. The most common ones are feeling sleepy, dizziness and headaches.
    • Pregabalin is also called by the brand names Lyrica, Alzain, Lecaent and Rewisca.
  3. Who can and can't take pregabalin

    Pregabalin is only for adults. Do not give it to children under the age of 18.

    Pregabalin isn't suitable for some people:

    • Pregabalin capsules contain gelatin so they may not be suitable for vegetarians and vegans.
    • Pregabalin liquid contains sodium. If you are on a controlled sodium diet, or your kidneys don't work well, speak to your doctor before taking this liquid.

    To make sure pregabalin is safe for you, tell your doctor if you:

    • have ever had an allergic reaction to pregabalin or another medicines in the past
    • have kidney problems
    • have ever abused or been addicted to a medicine
    • are trying to become pregnant, are already pregnant or are breastfeeding
  4. How and when to take it

    Pregabalin is a prescription medicine. It's important to take it as instructed by your doctor.

    How much will I take?

    The usual dose of pregabalin is between 150mg and 600mg a day split into 2 or 3 separate doses.

    If you are taking pregabalin as a liquid, 2.5ml is usually the same as taking a single 50mg capsule.

    How to take it

    You can take pregabalin with or without food, but it's best to be consistent each day. Try to space your doses evenly through the day.

    Swallow pregabalin capsules whole with a drink of water or juice. Do not chew them.

    If you are taking pregabalin as a liquid, it will come with a syringe or spoon to measure your dose. If you don't have a syringe or spoon, ask your pharmacist for one.

    Will my dose go up or down?

    To prevent side effects, your doctor will prescribe a low dose to start with and then increase it over a few days.

    Once you find a dose that suits you, it will usually then stay the same.

    How long will I take it for?

    If you have epilepsy, it is likely that once your illness is under control you will continue to take pregabalin for many years.

    If you are taking pregabalin for nerve pain or anxiety it is likely that once your symptoms have gone you will continue to take it for several months to stop them coming back.

    What if I forget to take it?

    If you forget a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is within 2 hours of the next dose, it is better to leave out the missed dose and take your next dose as normal.

    Never take 2 doses at the same time. Never take an extra dose to make up for a forgotten one.

    If you have epilepsy, it's important to take this medicine regularly. Missing doses may trigger a seizure.

    If you forget doses often, it may help to set an alarm to remind you. You could also ask your pharmacist for advice on other ways to help you remember to take your medicine.

    What if I take too much?

    Taking too much pregabalin by accident may cause unpleasant side effects including:

    • feeling sleepy
    • feeling confused or agitated
    • seizures
    • passing out

    If this happens, call your doctor or go to the nearest hospital accident and emergency (A&E) departmentstraight away.

    If you need to go to hospital, take the pregablin packet or leaflet inside it plus any remaining medicine with you.

  5. Side effects

    Not everyone will get side effects with pregabalin, it seems to be a very safe medicine.

    Common side effects

    These common side effects may happen in more than 1 in 100 people. They are usually mild and go away by themselves. Keep taking the medicine but tell your doctor if they bother you or don't go away:

    • headaches
    • feeling sleepy
    • dizziness
    • diarrhoea
    • mood changes
    • feeling sick
    • swollen hands, arms, legs and feet
    • blurred vision
    • for men, difficulties with getting an erection
    • weight gain - because pregabalin can make you feel hungry

    If you have diabetes, pregabalin can upset your blood sugar control. Monitor your blood sugar more often for the first few weeks of treatment with pregabalin and adjust your diabetes treatment if you need to. Talk to your doctor or diabetes nurse if you want more advice on what to do.

    Serious side effects

    Very few people taking pregabalin have serious problems.

    Tell a doctor straight away if you get:

    • thoughts of harming or killing yourself - a small number of people taking pregabalin have had suicidal thoughts that can happen after only a week of treatment
    • difficulties breathing
    • severe dizziness or pass out
    • problems going to the toilet, including blood in your pee, needing to pee more often, or constipation

    Serious allergic reaction

    In rare cases, it’s possible to have a serious allergic reaction to pregabalin.

    A serious allergic reaction is an emergency. Contact a doctor straight away if you think you or someone around you is having a serious allergic reaction.

    The warning signs of a serious allergic reaction are:

    • getting a skin rash that may include itchy, red, swollen, blistered or peeling skin
    • wheezing
    • tightness in the chest or throat
    • having trouble breathing or talking
    • swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat

    These are not all the side effects of pregabalin. For a full list see the leaflet inside your medicines packet.

    You can report any suspected side effect to the UK safety scheme.

  6. How to cope with side effects

    What to do about:

    • headaches - make sure you rest and drink plenty of fluids. Don’t drink too much alcohol. Ask your pharmacist to recommend a painkiller. Headaches should usually go away after the first week of taking pregabalin. Talk to your doctor if they last longer than a week or are severe.
    • feeling sleepy, tired or dizzy - as your body gets used to pregabalin, these side effects should wear off. If they don't wear off within a week or two, your doctor may reduce your dose or increase it more slowly. If that doesn't work you may need to switch to a different medicine.
    • feeling sick - take pregabalin with or after a meal or snack to ease feelings of sickness. It may also help if you don't eat rich or spicy food.
    • diarrhoea - have small but frequent sips of water. It may also help to take oral rehydration solutions which you can buy from a pharmacy or supermarket to prevent dehydration. Don't take any other medicines to treat diarrhoea without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
    • blurred vision - don't drive for a week.
    • weight gain - pregabalin can make you hungrier so it can be quite a challenge to stop yourself putting on weight. Try to eat a healthy balanced diet without increasing your portion sizes. Don't snack on foods that contain a lot of calories, such as crisps, cakes, biscuits and sweets. If you're hungry between meals, eat fruit and vegetables and low-calorie foods. Regular exercise will also help to keep your weight stable.
  7. Pregnancy and breastfeeding

    There is no firm evidence that pregabalin is harmful to an unborn baby but for safety you're usually only advised to take it in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks.

    If you take pregabalin for epilepsy and become pregnant, do not stop the medicine without talking to your doctor first. It's very important that epilepsy is treated during pregnancy as seizures can harm you and your unborn baby.

    If you're trying to get pregnant or have become pregnant, you're routinely recommended to take at least 400mcg of a vitamin called folic acid every day. It helps the unborn baby grow normally.

    Pregnant women who take pregabalin are recommended to take a higher dose of folic acid. Your doctor might prescribe a high dose of folic acid (5mg a day) for you to take during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

    If you take pregabalin around the time of giving birth, your baby may need extra monitoring for a few days after they're born. This is because they may have pregabalin withdrawal symptoms.

    Pregabalin and breastfeeding

    Tiny amounts of pregabalin can get into breast milk, but it's not clear whether it can harm the baby.

    Talk to your doctor, as other drugs might be better while you're breastfeeding.

    Tell your doctor if you're trying to get pregnant, are already pregnant or if you're breastfeeding.

  8. Cautions with other medicines

    Pregabalin can usually be safely mixed with other medicines.

    For safety, tell your doctor if you're taking these medicines before your start pregabalin:

    • strong painkillers such as morphine
    • medicines which make you feel sleepy or dizzy (pregabalin can worsen these side effects)

    Mixing pregabalin with herbal remedies and supplements

    There are no known problems with taking herbal remedies and supplements with pregabalin.

    However, for safety, speak to your pharmacist before taking pregabalin if you routinely take any herbal or alternative remedies.

    Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you're taking any other medicine, including herbal remedies, vitamins or supplements.

  9. Common questions



06/16/2018 14:44 PM


disabledke
Topic :   Costochondritis

Costochondritis

Costochondritis is the medical term for inflammation of the cartilage that joins your ribs to your breastbone (sternum). This area is known as the costochondral joint.

Cartilage is tough but flexible connective tissue found throughout the body, including in the joints between bones. It acts as a shock absorber, cushioning the joints.

Costochondritis may improve on its own after a few weeks, although it can last for several months or more. The condition doesn't lead to any permanent problems, but may sometimes relapse.

Tietze's syndrome

Costochondritis may be confused with a separate condition called Tietze's syndrome. Both conditions involve inflammation of the costochondral joint and can cause very similar symptoms.

However, Tietze's syndrome is much less common and often causes chest swelling, which may last after any pain and tenderness has gone.

Costochondritis also tends to affect adults aged 40 or over, whereas Tietze's syndrome usually affects young adults under 40.

As the conditions are very similar, most of the information below also applies to Tietze's syndrome.

Signs and symptoms

When the costochondral joint becomes inflamed it can result in sharp chest pain and tenderness, which may develop gradually or start suddenly.

The pain may be made worse by:

  • a particular posture – such as lying down
  • pressure on your chest – such as wearing a seatbelt or hugging someone
  • deep breathing, coughing and sneezing
  • physical activity

When to seek medical help

It can be difficult to tell the difference between the chest pain associated with costochondritis and pain caused by more serious conditions, such as a heart attack.

However, a heart attack usually causes more widespread pain and additional symptoms, such as breathlessness, nausea and sweating.

If you, or someone you're with, experiences sudden chest pain and you think there's a possibility it could be a heart attack, dial 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance.

If you've had chest pain for a while, don't ignore it. Make an appointment to see your GP so they can investigate the cause.

Causes of costochondritis

Inflammation is the body's natural response to infection, irritation or injury.

It's not known exactly why the costochondral joint becomes inflamed, but in some cases it's been linked to:

  • severe coughing – which strains your chest area
  • an injury to your chest
  • physical strain from repeated exercise or sudden exertion that you're not used to – such as moving furniture
  • an infection – including respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and wound infections
  • wear and tear – your chest moves in and out 20 to 30 times a minute, and over time this motion can lead to discomfort in these joints

Diagnosing costochondritis

If you have symptoms of costochondritis, your GP will examine and touch the upper chest area around your costochondral joint. They'll ask you when and where your pain occurs and look at your recent medical history.

Before a diagnosis can be confirmed, some tests may need to be carried out to rule out other possible causes of your chest pain.

These may include:

If no other condition is suspected or found, a diagnosis of costrochondritis may be made.

Treating costochondritis

Costochondritis often gets better after a few weeks, but self-help measures and medication can manage the symptoms.

Self-help

Costochondritis can be aggravated by any activity that places stress on your chest area, such as strenuous exercise or even simple movements like reaching up to a high cupboard.

Any activity that makes the pain in your chest area worse should be avoided until the inflammation in your ribs and cartilage has improved.

You may also find it soothing to regularly apply heat to the painful area – for example, using a cloth or flannel that's been warmed with hot water.

Painkillers

Painkillers, such as paracetamol, can be used to ease mild to moderate pain.

Taking a type of medication called a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) – such as ibuprofen and naproxen – two or three times a day can also help control the pain and swelling. 

Aspirin is also a suitable alternative, but shouldn't be given to children under 16 years old.

These medications are available from pharmacies without a prescription, but you should make sure you carefully read the instructions that come with them before use.

NSAIDs aren't suitable for people with certain health conditions, including:

Contact your GP if your symptoms get worse despite resting and taking painkillers, as you may benefit from treatment with corticosteroids. 

Corticosteroid injections

Corticosteroids are powerful medicines that can help reduce pain and swelling. They can be injected into and around your costochondral joint to help relieve the symptoms of costochondritis.

Corticosteroid injections may be recommended if your pain is severe, or if NSAIDs are unsuitable or ineffective.

They may be given by your GP, or you may need to be referred to a specialist called a rheumatologist.

Having too many corticosteroid injections can damage your costochondral joint, so you may only be able to have this type of treatment once every few months if you continue to experience pain.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

TENS is a method of pain relief where a mild electric current is delivered to the affected area using a small, battery-operated device. 

The electrical impulses can reduce the pain signals going to the spinal cord and brain, which may help relieve pain and relax muscles.

They may also stimulate the production of endorphins, which are the body's natural painkillers.

Although TENS may be used to help relieve pain in a wide range of conditions, it doesn't work for everyone.

There isn't enough good-quality scientific evidence to say for sure whether TENS is a reliable method of pain relief. Speak to your GP if you're considering TENS.

Read more about transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

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Content provided by HealthUnlocked

Page last reviewed: 16/05/2016 
Next review due: 01/05/2019



06/16/2018 13:56 PM


disabledke
Re :   Lexapro

Overdose

If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others.

Keep all regular medical and psychiatric appointments.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip themissed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacistor local waste disposal company.Information last revised September 2017. Copyright(c) 2017 First Databank, Inc.



06/16/2018 13:12 PM


disabledke
Re :   Lexapro

Interactions

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: other drugs that can cause bleeding/bruising (including antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrelNSAIDs such as ibuprofen, "blood thinners" such as warfarin).

Aspirin can increase the risk of bleeding when used with this medication. However, if your doctor has directed you to take low-dose aspirin for heart attack or stroke prevention (usually at dosages of 81-325 milligrams a day), you should continue taking it unless your doctor instructs you otherwise. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

Taking MAO inhibitors with this medication may cause a serious (possibly fatal) drug interaction. Avoid taking MAO inhibitors (isocarboxazidlinezolid, methylene blue, moclobemide, phenelzineprocarbazinerasagiline, safinamide, selegiline, tranylcypromine) during treatment with this medication. Most MAO inhibitors should also not be taken for two weeks before and after treatment with this medication. Ask your doctor when to start or stop taking this medication.

The risk of serotonin syndrome/toxicity increases if you are also taking other drugs that increase serotonin. Examples include street drugs such as MDMA/"ecstasy," St. John's wort, certain antidepressants (including other SSRIs such as fluoxetine/paroxetine, SNRIs such as duloxetine/venlafaxine), tryptophan, among others. The risk of serotonin syndrome/toxicity may be more likely when you start or increase the dose of these drugs.

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products that cause drowsiness including alcohol, marijuanaantihistamines (such as cetirizinediphenhydramine), drugs for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolamdiazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants, and narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine).

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as allergy, pain/fever reducers, or cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that cause drowsiness or increase the risk of bleeding. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.

Many drugs besides escitalopram may affect the heart rhythm (QT prolongation), including amiodaronepimozideprocainamidequinidinesotalol, among others.

Escitalopram is very similar to citalopram. Do not use medications containing citalopram while using escitalopram.

This medication may interfere with certain medical/laboratory tests (including brain scan for Parkinson's disease), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.



06/16/2018 13:12 PM


disabledke
Re :   Lexapro

Precautions

Before taking escitalopram, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to citalopram; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: personal or family history of bipolar/manic-depressive disorder, personal or family history of suicide attempts, liver disease, seizures, intestinal ulcers/bleeding (peptic ulcer disease) or bleeding problems, low sodium in the blood (hyponatremia), personal or family history of glaucoma (angle-closure type).

Escitalopram may cause a condition that affects the heart rhythm (QT prolongation). QT prolongation can rarely cause serious (rarely fatal) fast/irregular heartbeat and other symptoms (such as severe dizzinessfainting) that need medical attention right away.

The risk of QT prolongation may be increased if you have certain medical conditions or are taking other drugs that may cause QT prolongation. Before using escitalopram, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take and if you have any of the following conditions: certain heart problems (heart failure, slow heartbeat, recent heart attack, QT prolongation in the EKG), family history of certain heart problems (QT prolongation in the EKG, sudden cardiac death).

Low levels of potassium or magnesium in the blood may also increase your risk of QT prolongation. This risk may increase if you use certain drugs (such as diuretics/"water pills") or if you have conditions such as severe sweatingdiarrhea, or vomiting. Talk to your doctor about using escitalopram safely.

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Alcohol or marijuana can make you more dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs alertness until you can do it safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages. Talk to your doctor if you are using marijuana.

The liquid form of this medication may contain sugar and/or aspartame. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this medication safely.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, such as QT prolongation (see above), loss of coordination, or bleeding. They may also be more likely to lose too much salt (hyponatremia), especially if they are also taking "water pills" (diuretics) with this medication. Loss of coordination can increase the risk of falling.

Children may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially loss of appetite and weight loss. Monitor weight and height in children who are taking this drug.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. It may harm an unborn baby. Also, babies born to mothers who have used this drug during the last 3 months of pregnancy may rarely develop withdrawal symptoms such as feeding/breathing difficulties, seizures, muscle stiffness, or constant crying. If you notice any of these symptoms in your newborn, tell the doctor promptly.

Since untreated mental/mood problems (such as depressionanxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder) can be a serious condition, do not stop using this medication unless directed by your doctor. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant, or think you may be pregnant, immediately discuss with your doctor the benefits and risks of using this medication during pregnancy.

This medication passes into breast milk and may have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.



06/16/2018 13:11 PM


disabledke
Re :   Lexapro

Side Effects

See also Warning section.

Nauseadry mouthtrouble sleepingconstipation, tiredness, drowsiness, dizziness, and increased sweating may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: decreased interest in sex, changes in sexual ability, easy bruising/bleeding.

Get medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: bloody/black/tarry stools, fainting, fast/irregular heartbeat, vomit that looks like coffee grounds, seizureseye pain/swelling/redness, widened pupils, vision changes (such as seeing rainbows around lights at night, blurred vision).

This medication may increase serotonin and rarely cause a very serious condition called serotonin syndrome/toxicity. The risk increases if you are also taking other drugs that increase serotonin, so tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take (see Drug Interactionssection). Get medical help right away if you develop some of the following symptoms: fast heartbeat, hallucinations, loss of coordination, severe dizziness, severe nausea/vomiting/diarrheatwitching muscles, unexplained fever, unusual agitation/restlessness.

Rarely, males may have a painful or prolonged erection lasting 4 or more hours. If this occurs, stop using this drug and get medical help right away, or permanent problems could occur.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rashitching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.



06/16/2018 13:11 PM


disabledke
Topic :   Lexapro

Lexapro

GENERIC NAME(S): Escitalopram Oxalate

WARNINGS: 

Antidepressantmedications are used to treat a variety of conditions, including depression and other mental/mood...Show More

Uses

Escitalopram is used to treat depression and anxiety. It works by helping to restore the balance of a certain natural substance (serotonin) in the brain. Escitalopram belongs to a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). It may improve your energy level and feelings of well-being and decrease nervousness.

How to use Lexapro

Read the Medication Guide and, if available, the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start taking escitalopram and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually once daily in the morning or evening. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, age, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

If you are using the liquid form of this medication, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose.

To reduce your risk of side effects, your doctor may direct you to start taking this drug at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully. Do not increase your dose or use this drug more often or for longer than prescribed. Your condition will not improve any faster, and your risk of side effects will increase. Take this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day.

It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Some conditions may become worse when this drug is suddenly stopped. Also, you may experience symptoms such as mood swings, headache, tiredness, sleep changes, and brief feelings similar to electric shock. To prevent these symptoms while you are stopping treatment with this drug, your doctor may reduce your dose gradually. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details. Report any new or worsening symptoms right away.

It may take 1 to 2 weeks to feel a benefit from this drug and 4 weeks to feel the full benefit of this medication. Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens.



06/16/2018 13:10 PM


disabledke
Topic :   Lupus

Lupus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) – lupus – is a long-term condition causing inflammation to the joints, skin and other organs. There's no cure, but symptoms can improve if treatment starts early.

See a GP if you often get:

  • joint pain and stiffness
  • extreme tiredness that won't go away no matter how much you rest
  • skin rashes – often over the nose and cheeks

As well as the 3 main symptoms, you might also have:

  • weight loss
  • swollen glands
  • sensitivity to light (causing rashes on uncovered skin)
  • poor circulation in fingers and toes (Raynaud's)

Lupus is better managed if diagnosed and treated early.

How lupus is diagnosed

As lupus symptoms can be similar to lots of other conditions, it can take some time to diagnose.

Your GP will usually do some blood tests. High levels of a type of antibody, combined with typical symptoms, mean lupus is likely.

You might be referred for X-rays and scans of your heart, kidney and other organs if your doctor thinks they might be affected.

Once lupus is diagnosed, you'll be advised to have regular checks and tests – for example, regular blood tests to check for anaemiaand urine tests to check for kidney problems, which lupus can cause.

Lupus can range from mild to severe

SeverityHow it affects the body
Mildjoint and skin problems, tiredness
Moderateinflammation of other parts of the skin and body, including your lungs, heart and kidneys
Severeinflammation causing severe damage to the heart, lungs, brain or kidneys can be life threatening

Symptoms can flare up and settle down

Often the disease flares up (relapses) and symptoms become worse for a few weeks, sometimes longer.

Symptoms then settle down (remission). The reason why symptoms flare up or settle down is not yet known.

Some people don't notice any difference and symptoms are constant.

Treatment for lupus

Lupus is generally treated using:

  • anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen
  • hydroxychloroquine for fatigue and skin and joint problems
  • steroid tablets, injections and creams for kidney inflammation and rashes

Two newer medicines (rituximab and belimumab) are sometimes used to treat severe lupus. These work on the immune system to reduce the number of antibodies in the blood.

Arthritis Research UK has more information on the treatments for lupus.

Living with lupus – things you can do yourself

Although medicines are important in controlling lupus, you can help manage your symptoms and reduce the risk of it getting worse.

Do

  • eat a healthy, balanced diet
  • try to stay active when you're having a flare-up – try walking or swimming
  • get lots of rest
  • try relaxation techniques to manage stress – stress can make symptoms worse
  • use high-factor (50+) sunscreen – you can get it on prescription if you have lupus
  • wear a hat in the sun
  • tell your employer about your condition – you might be able to adjust your working pattern
  • ask for help from family, friends and health professionals

Don't

  • smoke – stopping smoking is the most important thing to do if you have lupus
  • sit in direct sunlight or spend a lot of time in rooms with fluorescent lights

LUPUS UK has support, advice and information for people with the disease.

Causes of lupus

Lupus is an autoimmune disease. This means the body's natural defence system (immune system) attacks healthy tissues.

It isn't contagious.

It's not fully understood what causes lupus. A viral infection, strong medication, sunlight, puberty, childbirth and the menopause can all trigger the condition.

More women than men get lupus, and it's more common in black and Asian women.

Pregnancy and lupus

Lupus can cause complications in pregnancy.

See your doctor before trying to get pregnant to discuss the risks and so your medication can be changed if necessary.

Page last reviewed: 30/08/2017 
Next review due: 30/08/2020



06/16/2018 12:25 PM


disabledke
Re :   Hypersensitivity


2. Treatments of allergic hypersensitivity (type I)

The very first thing you should do to treat allergic hypersensitivity is to stay away from the allergens. You can do this if you know the exact cause of the reaction. This is the most crucial step in preventing future reactions and in reducing the symptoms of the condition.

One of the most common forms of treatment is to take medications which would depend on your allergic reaction. These medications can reduce the response of your immune system and alleviate the symptoms of the condition. There are over-the-counter and prescription medications which come in the form of nasal sprays, eye drops, liquid or even pills.

Treatments of allergic hypersensitivity (type I)


3. Treatments of Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity- Type II

Treatment for type II hypersensitivity is more aimed at the management of the symptoms. Depending on the condition’s severity, the doctor can apply different approaches to treatment. The doctor can give such treatments on their own or in combination with each other.

For one, the doctor can prescribe steroids such as dexamethasone, prednisolone, and more. In some cases, you would need high doses of the steroids, and in some cases, they may be a long-term medication for treatment. In such cases, though, you will need medical supervision to be able to monitor any potential side effects. Other treatment options include intragam infusion, plasmapheresis, or prescription of other types of drugs.

Treatments of Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity- Type II

4. Treatments of cytotoxic hypersensitivity (type II)

Treatment for type II hypersensitivity is more aimed at the management of the symptoms. Depending on the condition’s severity, the doctor can apply different approaches to treatment. The doctor can give such treatments on their own or in combination with each other.

For one, the doctor can prescribe steroids. In some cases, you would need high doses of the steroids, and in some cases, they may be a long-term medication for treatment. In such cases, though, you will need medical supervision to be able to monitor any potential side effects. Other treatment options include intragam infusion, plasmapheresis, or prescription of other types of drugs.

Treatments of cytotoxic hypersensitivity (type II)




06/16/2018 11:01 AM


disabledke
Topic :   Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity: Causes and Treatments

AilmentsBody

Hypersensitivity has many names such as hypersensitivity intolerance or reaction. Though, it refers to any adverse response produced by the body’s immune system. This condition is also known as the immune system’s over-reaction which may cause damages to the body, uncomfortable feelings or even death. Such reactions require the body to be in an immune or pre-sensitized state.

Hypersensitivity can involve mechanisms which are either immunological or non-immunological. There are different types of hypersensitivity, and it’s essential to learn more about them. So if you experience these conditions, you have an idea what caused them and what treatment you need. The common types of hypersensitivity include type I, type II, type III, and type IV. There also a fifth type of hypersensitivity but it’s quite rare. Read on to learn about these types of hypersensitivity along with their causes and treatments:

1. Causes of allergic hypersensitivity (type I)

Allergic hypersensitivity or allergies happen when the body’s immune system reacts to foreign matter. The allergic reaction would start when the immune system confuses a harmless substance for something harmful. When this happens, the immune system will produce antibodies which would remain in the body. The antibodies would stay alert for the specific allergen they need to defend the body against.

When you get exposed to the same substance, the antibodies will produce chemicals like histamine which then cause the allergic hypersensitivity symptoms. Common triggers for this type of hypersensitivity are airborne allergens, foods, medications, insect stings, latex, and more.

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Disclaimer

This site offers information designed for educational purposes only. You should not rely on any information on this site as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment, or as a substitute for, professional counseling care, advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any concerns or questions about your health, you should always consult with a physician or other health-care professional.



06/16/2018 10:58 AM


disabledke
Re :   PIP

https://www.gov.uk/search?q=PIP&show_organisations_filter=true


06/16/2018 00:42 AM

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